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Things to Do in Andalucia

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Alhambra (Alhambra de Granada)
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The Alhambra is not only Spain’s greatest architectural treasure, but one of the world’s wonders. It might not wow you right up front like a Taj Mahal or a Great Pyramid, but soon enough that austere exterior reveals a wonderland of musical fountains, cunningly devised gardens and finely carved palaces. Its construction was begun in the 11th century on the red hill known as Assabika, which overlooks Granada. The Alcazaba fortress was the first structure to be built, followed by the royal palace and residence of members of the court.
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Royal Alcázar of Seville (Real Alcázar de Sevilla)
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The Reales Alcazáres, often just called the Alcázar or Royal Alcázar Palace, started off life as a fort, but various generations of rulers transformed it, building palaces, halls, courtyards and the adjoining gardens. Although it's far smaller than the Alhambra, it has the same kind of impact. It too is World Heritage listed. Actually, it's hardly surprising that the Alcázar recalls the Alhambra; some of the Alhambra's most prominent architects worked on it. Their masterpiece is probably the Patio de las Doncellas with its delicate arches, garden and reflecting pool. The Alcázar is associated with many colorful figures, most notably Pedro I (often called Pedro the Cruel), who ordered much of the Alcázar's construction. The rainwater tanks underneath the building are named for one of his victims, a beauty whom he pursued so ruthlessly that she disfigured herself with burning oil and became a nun. Not least of the Alcázar's pleasures are its gardens with their palms, pools and pavilio
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Mezquita (Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba)
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Originally the site of the Christian Visigoth Church San Vicente, Córdoba’s Mezquita -- or Grand Mosque -- stands as the city's most proud monument and one of the most exquisite Islamic structures in the western world.

Its initial origins date back to the year 600 and, following the Islamic conquest in the 8th century, the site of the Visigoth church was actually split between Christians and Muslims for a time. Ultimately, it was bought out by the governor of al-Andalus, with the construction of the Islamic mosque beginning in 785 by Muslim emir Abdurrahman I.

Since then, the structure has evolved right along with Spanish history. A minaret was added, and the building was enlarged, reaching its final size in 987. Then, when Kind Ferdinand conquered Córdoba during the Reconquista in 1236, the structure was consecrated as a Christian Cathedral.

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La Caleta Beach
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Given that Cadiz is almost entirely surrounded by water, the desire to hit thebeach is bound to strike you at some point. When this happens, your go-to destination will be La Caleta, the only proper beach in old town. It’s an isolated shoreline that cozies up along the western side of the city, nestled inside a natural harbor once used by the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans.

Though it’s Cadiz’s shortest sandy shore, it ticks all the beach boxes, offering soft golden sands and calm waters, as well as amenities including lifeguards and showers. Perhaps best of all is that the beach is western facing, which means it’s the perfect spot in town to catch a dreamy Spanish sunset. While there, spy some of La Caleta’s notable sights, including the impossible-to-miss crescent-shaped Balneario de Nuestra Señora de la Palma y del Real, a 1920s spa whose gazebo-tipped arms reach out across the shore.

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Genovés Park (Parque Genovés)
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While in Cadiz, a trip toward the sea can offer more than just pretty views. Indeed, if you go to the northwestern border of the island-like southern city, you’ll happen upon one of its favorite treasures, Park Genoves. Created in the 19th century, the seaside green getaway wasn’t always so green, though: it once went by the name of Parsley Promenade given its sparse vegetation. But these days the garden serves as a botanical wonderland filled with over 100 species of trees and shrubs.

Strolling down its paths lined by fancily manicured greenery, you can escape the city and catch glimpses of the sea. Children will appreciate the man-made lake, which features dinosaur statues poking out of its waters, and a waterfall, which can be climbed atop, or even explored below by walking through its grotto. Whether you wish to sip on a coffee at the garden’s café, or prefer to find a quiet bench to relax on in the shade, the park is an enjoyable Cadiz stop that is worth a wander.

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Plaza de España
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The Plaza de España is a magnificently proportioned semi-circular space designed for the Ibero-American World's Fair of 1929. It's edged by buildings and tile patterns that blend a Deco sensibility with traditional techniques. If it looks familiar, it may be because you've seen it acting as a backdrop in Star Wars II: Attack of the Clones. At the Plaza's center is an impressive fountain, and edging the buildings are little moats that you cross over elegant bridges. Next to the Plaza is the Maria Luisa Park, with its orange trees and formal gardens. These days the buildings in the Plaza are used by the government.
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Generalife Gardens
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The Generalife was built as a summer palace for the Muslim emirs, a place of retreat where they could kick back with their harems and take some time away from the world. Its charming gardens – undoubtedly the highlight of the Generalife - are still a prime place to do just that. Generalife Gardens are designed for tranquility, with everywhere the trickle of running water cooling the senses. Tall cypresses frame pathways, fountains play in arches over long pools, streams flow down staircases, flowers and flowering trees cast their scent, and hedges enclose serene little lawns. The sultana’s garden, with its ancient cypress trunk, was where one sultan’s wife trysted with her lover (and was caught, precipitating bloodshed – hard to believe as you stand in this artful paradise).
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Cordoba Jewish Quarter (Judería de Córdoba)
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Sprinkled across the Spanish Peninsula, you'll come across Jewish Quarters known as juderías. In Córdoba, which was once considered the most populous city in the world, the Jewish community especially thrived, and now its ancient neighborhood of white buildings is considered one of the most famous juderías in Spain.

The Jewish community indeed played an important role culturally in the history of the Iberian Peninsula. During the Moorish Caliphate -- the period of Islamic rule over Spain which ended in 1031 -- the Jewish community flourished as Córdoba rose as a center for commerce, prosperity, education and religious tolerance.

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Seville Cathedral (Catedral de Santa María de la Sede)
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When the designers of the Seville Cathedral set out to build a new church on the site of the city's old mosque, they didn't hold back. They wanted the best of the best, excess of excess, and they got it. Building of this new cathedral 'like no other' began in the 1400s and wasn't completed until the 1500s. It's still the biggest Gothic cathedral in the world, and the third-largest church. It has 80 chapels. And oh, what's inside those chapels! Gold...and more gold; priceless works of art by the likes of Goya and Murillo; stained glass; and, it's said, the remains of Christopher Columbus. Next to the cathedral is the Giralda Tower, once the minaret of the mosque that made way for the cathedral, now a bell tower. Climb the steep ramps, designed for horses and riders, to the very top for incomparable views of Seville and its cathedral.
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Malaga Alcazaba
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If you’re in Malaga, chances are you’ve not missed the town’s citadel towering in the center of the city. Known as the Alcazaba de Malaga, and built around the middle of the 11th century to act as a palace to the region’s governors, today the Alcazaba receives visitors year-round and is noted for its impressive gardens and panoramic views of both the city and the sea.

La Alcazaba was built atop the vestiges of an old Roman fortress, and the proof of this is most evident in the Puerta de las Columnas gate (gate of the columns). Its name, in fact, refers and pays homage to the pre-existing roman structure used to help build the palace as it stands today. This gate and another lay before visitors on their way up to the structure which is actually two distinct architectural pieces: Alcazaba itself, and Gibralfaro Castle. Inside, you’ll see some of the noted gardens, fountains and towers in traditional Moorish design before entering the main lobby of the palace.

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More Things to Do in Andalucia

El Tajo Gorge

El Tajo Gorge

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The gorgeous old Moorish town of Ronda is high in the foothills of the Sierra de las Nieves and was occupied by the Phoenicians and Muslims before the Spanish re-conquered Andalusia in 1485. It teeters precariously atop the El Tajo Gorge, with jaw-dropping views across the rugged countryside, and is one of the few towns in the world to be split in two by a ravine.

The rocky, sheer-sided limestone cliffs of El Tajo Gorge plummet 390 ft (120 m) to Guadalevín River far below and at its narrowest it is only 225 ft (68 m) wide. Over the millennia the river has carved out this massive canyon as it is fed by snow melt in spring. Three bridges span the gorge and the biggest of these is the triple-arched Puente Nuevo, which was built in the late 18th century. It has become one of the most iconic images of Spain. Start an exploration of the gorge from the pathway that leads down behind the tourist office in Plaza España, just on the north side of the Puente Nuevo.

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Ronda

Ronda

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Settled by the Phoenecians around the 7th century BC, later conquered by the Muslims and finally settling under Spanish rule, Ronda has had a long and varied history marked by war, trade, and geographic wonder. Today, most visit the small town of Ronda in order to enjoy is rustic charms, photograph the dramatic landscape and taste some of the local wineries of the region.

Described by many travelers as a bit “off the beaten path,” the somewhat circuitous road leading up to the town is marked by the beautiful Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) terrain. Mountainous and Mediterranean climate are good for wine, and some notable local wineries are located in this district and may be visited along the way.

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El Caminito del Rey

El Caminito del Rey

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Santa Cruz

Santa Cruz

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Whitewashed buildings, maze-like streets, and courtyards lined with orange trees: No place really defines Seville charm quite like the streets of the Santa Cruz district. As the city's former judería, or Jewish quarter, it is home to many of Seville's top sights, from the grand cathedral with its minaret-turned-tower (called the Giralda) to the Real Alcázar and its fountain-dotted gardens.

The neighborhood dates back to when Ferdinand III of Castile took Seville from Muslim rule, and the city's Jewish residents began to live in what is now El Barrio de Santa Cruz. After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, however, the district fell into disrepair, until it was finally revived in the 18th century.

Apart from appreciating the district's history and seeing the main sights, perhaps the best thing you can do during a visit to Santa Cruz is to simply get lost in the barrio's streets.

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Hammam Al Ándalus Málaga

Hammam Al Ándalus Málaga

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Centuries ago, when Spain was under Muslim rule, Arab baths could be found in locations throughout the south. These hammams are said to have served as places of purification, hygiene and relaxation. Though few remain, you can still get a feel—in more ways than one—for what these tranquil getaways were like by experiencing the Hammam Al Andalus in Malaga.

Located in a historic building just off Martyers Square and next to an old Mudejar-towered church, this hammam—or Arab bath—features Moorish-inspired architecture. Think details such as horseshoe-shaped arches, colorful tiled walls, and ethereal lighting created by star-shaped skylights in the overhead dome. As is tradition, the Hammam Al Andalus has cold, warm and hot baths, as well as a steam room, and rest room, where you can relax and sip on traditional mint tea. Lasting 1.5 hours, the sessions allow guests to experience the various pools when not enjoying their massage.

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Museo Picasso Málaga

Museo Picasso Málaga

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It stands to good reason that there would be a museum of the great Picasso in Andalucia’s Malaga: this is where the painter, draughtsman, and sculptor was born, after all. Located only 200 yards from the Plaza de la Merced, Picasso’s actual birthplace, the Museo Picasso Malaga holds over 150 works of the famous Picasso on permanent display and presents new rotating exhibits year-round.

Picasso was revolutionary in his time for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of artistic styles he helped explore. And while his most well-known works are typically referred to his period paintings, Picasso worked across a variety of mediums. Sketchbooks from his early years where he focused on realism, a variety of cubist ceramic pieces, and some intricate engravings are on permanent display at the Museo Picasso Malaga, and many of these pieces were personal gifts from his living descendants.

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Malaga Cathedral (Cathedral de la Encarnación)

Malaga Cathedral (Cathedral de la Encarnación)

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Málaga’s gleaming white-stone cathedral was built over many years on the former site of a mosque after Isabella and Ferdinand had expelled the Moors from Andalusia in the 1480s. All that is now left of the mosque is the pretty Patio de los Naranjos, still filled with sweet-smelling orange trees. The cathedral is affectionately known locally as La Manquita (the one-armed lady) as it only has one – granted very elaborate and Baroque – bell tower.

The original architect of the cathedral was Diego de Siloe and construction began in 1528; it continued slowly over the next two and a half centuries and this can clearly be seen in the mish-mash of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture on the façade. The architecture José Martín de Aldehuela, who built the Puente Nuevo in Ronda, also had a hand in finishing this cathedral.

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Málaga Roman Theatre (Teatro Romano de Málaga)

Málaga Roman Theatre (Teatro Romano de Málaga)

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Sitting underneath the Alcazaba (fortified citadel), the Roman theater is Málaga’s oldest monument and was built during the reign of Emperor Augustus. It was at the cultural heart of the city for 300 years until the Moors began to plunder the stone to build the Alcazaba between the eighth and 11th centuries; Roman columns taken from the theater can clearly be seen in the Puerta de las Columnas (gate of the columns) at the entrance to the citadel. The theater was abandoned, buried and forgotten for centuries before finally being rediscovered in 1951 during a civic construction project.

After decades of restoration work, the theater stands proud once more; it measures 102 ft (31 m) across and 52 (16 m) in height; the stage, orchestra pit, entrance gateways and crescent-shaped, tiered auditorium – which seats 220 spectators – have all been carefully resurrected. It was re-opened in 2011 and entrance is through an Interpretation Center.

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Roman Bridge (Puente Romano)

Roman Bridge (Puente Romano)

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Plaza de la Merced

Plaza de la Merced

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Picasso’s birthplace is located on the elegant Plaza de la Merced barely 200 yards (180 m) from the awesome Museo Picasso Malaga, which holds over 150 of his artworks. Standing at the end of Calle Alcazabilla, the sweeping square is dominated by an obelisk honoring General Torrijos, an aristocratic revolutionary who fought against French invasion of Spain and was publically executed here for his pains in 1831.

This bourgeois, tree-fringed piazza was once site of Málaga’s main produce market and is today lined with smart, shuttered and balconied townhouses, cafés and top-end restaurants. It lies at the very heart of the city and each night locals gather here to promenade and chat in the tapas bars. The last Sunday of the month sees Málaga’s main craft market held in the square, where local delicacies such as Serrano ham and tortilla are also on sale.

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The Giralda (El Giraldillo)

The Giralda (El Giraldillo)

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There is no more perfect symbol of Seville's layered history than the Giralda Tower (or El Giraldillo) the bell tower of the city's cathedral. It stands a little apart from the main building; it was once the minaret of the mosque that stood on the site before it was razed to make way for the cathedral.

The lower sections of the tower date from that time, but its upper parts are Christian Renaissance architecture. The tower was once topped by a copper ball, but that fell in a 14th century earthquake and was replaced with a cross. It's a long climb up the 100 meters (330 feet) to the top of La Giralda, but the views of the city and the statuary of the lower levels are stunning enough to make it well worth the effort. There are no stairs: you'll ascend on a series of cunningly designed ramps.
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Torre del Oro

Torre del Oro

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Just steps away from the Alcázar, and perched upon the Guadalquivir River, stands one of Seville's most un-missable monuments from the past, the Torre del Oro, or Golden Tower.

The 12-sided tower dates back to the Almohad Dynasty, when it was constructed in the 13th century. The theories behind the name's origin vary: Some say it came from the tower's once gold-tiled exterior, others say that it was due to it being a drop-off and storage point for gold delivery from the New World, and still others believe the title is simply a result of the landmark's golden-hued reflection on the river.

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